Lee in the Mountains

Doing the Lord's Work by Saving the White Race

Monthly Archives: August 2008

“Whites only” at LITM

We wish other races well, just as stated in the Kinism Statement. However, there has to be a place for “Whites only”, or Whites will cease to exist.  Segregation’s time has passed.  We need Separation, now more than ever.


“Whites only” sign leads to hate crime arrest in the Falls

NIAGARA FALLS … A 26-year employee of the city’s Department of Public Works was charged with a hate crime today as part of an investigation into the posting of a racially motivated sign.

James Curtis, 52, who is white, has been charged with second-degree aggravated harassment under the hate crime category.

The enhancement turns the class A misdemeanor into an E felony.

A city employee working a night shift earlier this month in the public works yard on New Road found a sign placed on one of the drinking fountains that said, “whites only.”

City officials announced the arrest during a brief press conference in City Hall.

“As part of my policy of having no tolerance for this type of behavior, in addition to the criminal charge brought by the police department and the district attorney’s office,” Mayor Paul A. Dyster said, “the city is also commencing disciplinary proceedings against Mr. Curtis.”

Curtis will be arraigned Tuesday morning in Niagara Falls City Court.

Crash Course Chapters 17 (a,b, and c) on peak oil are completed

(sorry for the formatting)

Chris Martenson's Crash Course presentation is the best by far, presentation 
of it's kind. It is also very compelling.  Please check it out.  I think 
"Peak Oil" is real, but real or not, "They" are "Peak Oiling" us for sure.




I wanted to let you know that all three Crash Course videos on PEAK OIL and 
ENERGY are up and available for you to view and pass around.

Direct link to Chapter 17, Parts a/b/c

Please note that I had to put all three videos on the same page. You will 
have to scroll down to see "b" and "c". This has been some of my very best 
work in terms of analysis and presenting. The topics presented should be 
understood by everybody.

Part "c" lies at the very center of my thinking. I am proud of my PhD from 
Duke but,without a doubt, this is the best output of my life. I have put an 
incredible amount of focused effort into assuring that these topics were 
presented as clearly and accessibly as possible and I hope you agree. 

If you do, pass them along. I have installed "share this" technology which 
makes sending things to people you care about incredibly easy. All you have 
to do is click a  button at the top of each Crash Course Chapter and drop in 
an email address. Of course you can also just copy, paste and send links as 
many of you already do.

Many people have encouraged me to write the Crash Course as a book. Others 
have been astounded that I do not charge for the Crash Course.  But I decided 
that the video format had more power than a book and that making this freely 
available was the right thing to do. 

I hope you agree.

Your faithful information scout,Chris Martenson

The McCainiac picks a Squaw

It has been widely reported, Palin is a Squaw. Her Buck is reported to be an Eskimo. dr jimmy Dobson has become all warm and willing over this, advising that he will NOW pull the lever for the McCainiac. Even if her husband is not an Eskimo, I dont care how “conned” (conservative) she claims to be or how conned the professional joodeochristian Wrong proclaims her to be, she will never rule over me or mine. Stay home and take care of you papooses, Squaw. Today, I listened on the radio to several professional joodeo-christian Wrong whores loudly proclaiming the Squaw as the savior. They all brayed, Now, “We” can vote for the McCainiac. I watched the Obamanation coronation last nite, on a friend’s TV. I agree with what was stated at the event, time and time again, “The New Amerika has arrived. ” Indeed it has. No denial from here, I can smell the stench. Me and mine will have nothing to do with anything “They” offer us, nothing; squaw, negro, joobiden, or White hating McCainiac. We want nothing that illegitimate Uncle Sam has to offer.

LITM, now more than ever!

God save what is left of the White race!
No king, but King Jesus!

U.S. Navy looks to boost diversities to 50% of Officer Corp

Much has been written about the feminsation of the U.S. Military. Actually this is some of the best news we have heard. The feminsation and non-Whiteness of the U.S. Military should be encouraged! This will be a Great Blessing one day. Can y’all imagine how today’s feminised non-white pantie waist U.S. Military would stand up to General Lee’s Army?

Deo Vendice!


Navy looks to boost diversity with graphic novel

August 22, 2008 – 2:48pm

ANNAPOLIS, Md. – The U.S. Naval Academy is building on efforts to increase student diversity with the help of a new commercial and a graphic novel.

The flashy new commericial will run at least during televised Navy football games. The graphic novel is due out in the fall.

Vice Adm. Jeffrey Fowler, the academy’s superintendent, wants to make the academy’s student body as diverse as the Navy’s enlisted force, in which minorities make up about 47 percent.

[About 28 percent of the members of the academy class of 2012 are minorities, which academy officials believe is the highest percentage yet.

Fowler says it took a generation to make the enlisted force representative of America’s population. And he says he believes it will take a generation to get the officer corps to represent the nation.

Fight Famlism

This is dedicated to Janet Parschell’ , the southern national congress, and the most infamous Chuckie Demastus and his list. Y’all have done “good!”

Fight Famlism

By Rev. Jack O’Kobian

Modern Christians have made great strides against racism. But much more needs to be done if we are to be true servants of Equality.

Now we must confront a form of racism that most people don’t even recognize as such. This is the sin of famlism, the preference for one’s children over other children. Admittedly this seems natural, but in the fallen world most sins seem natural. Only as we follow the spiritual truth of Equality can we rise above this sinful material world.

Do you doubt that famlism is racism? Consider how racists often justify their hate by saying that it’s really no different from preferring one’s child. And consider how famlists often use such terms as “my flesh and blood.” The similarity to the Nazi’s “blood and soil” is obvious. Only a bigot would disagree,

In the words of no less than Martin Luther King, the only basis for judging another human being is the “content of character.” Thus if a “father” prefers his “son” to another child who is morally superior to that “son,” he is clearly a bigot because he values flesh more than morality. Such a “father” clearly views his “family”-physical traits, genes and all-as a miniature Master Race.

While it is true that the Old Testament affirms family lineage and says “honor thy father and they mother,” the law of the OT no longer applies because now, under the New Testament, we are under grace instead of law. Jesus said “call no man your father.” Grace is spirit and abolishes physical distinctions.

Throughout history we can see the evil caused by famlism, wars of dynasty, family feuds, jealously and favoritism. Blood ties lead to bloodshed. It is the shame of the Church that Marxists have long understood the evils of famlism better than Christians and have worked to attack this and other sins against Equality. Indeed it was the Marxist, Leon Trosky, who invented the term “racism.”

To fight famlism, the Church must set the long-range goal of raising all children in common. In the words of Hillary Clinton, “It takes a village to raise a child.” As a preliminary step to that goal,

Christian parents should make a practice of swapping their new-borns with other “families.”

Some “mothers,” of course, will object, and they will play on the sentiments of a mother holding her infant child. Nevertheless, we must cut through this sentiment and understand the sin that motivates it. The extent to which a “mother” focuses on her child is the extent to which she tunes out other children-and that is hate.
Although abortion is a bad thing, it may be serving what is ultimately a good purpose. When a woman has the child in her womb killed, it desensitizes her to warmth and favoritism toward children of her own, and thereby opens her heart to impartial feeling toward all children. Gay marriage also may have a beneficial side by undercutting the prestige of famlism.

We should never fail to denounce famlism whenever we encounter it, even in tough cases. For example, if a couple has just lost its child in an accident, the moral response is to withhold sympathy for their grief. Tell the couple “to get over it” because there are plenty of living children around for them to love, many with a “content of character” superior to that of “their” deceased kid.

Admittedly, the path to True Equality will not be easy, but it is the only way we can purge the sin of earth with the spirit of heaven. One day this love will trample out the vineyards of hate.

I lost my heart to a Galway girl!

Steve Earle is not a Kinist (yet), but this song sure is. He sure ain’t singing about the Mogadishu girl! (NB: lam not promoting/condoning  pre-marital sex!)

The Galway Girl

Well, I took a stroll on the old long walk
Of a day -I-ay-I-ay
I met a little girl and we stopped to talk
Of a fine soft day -I-ay-I-ay
And I ask you, friend, what’s a fella to do
‘Cause her hair was black and her eyes were blue
And I knew right then I’d be takin’ a whirl
‘Round the Salthill Prom with a Galway girl

We were halfway there when the rain came down
Of a day -I-ay-I-ay
And she asked me up to her flat downtown
Of a fine soft day -I-ay-I-ay
And I ask you, friend, what’s a fella to do
‘Cause her hair was black and her eyes were blue
So I took her hand and I gave her a twirl
And I lost my heart to a Galway girl

When I woke up I was all alone
With a broken heart and a ticket home
And I ask you now, tell me what would you do
If her hair was black and her eyes were blue
I’ve traveled around I’ve been all over this world
Boys I ain’t never seen nothin’ like a Galway girl

Two must read/must have books.

I received both these books when they came out in the late 1970s. Many have been the times that I had these books out in the garden, the barn, or the kitchen, saying “Now, how do you do that?” Unfortunately, both John Seymour and Carla Emery have died. Fortunately, they both lived as they wrote. I particularly like Seymour’s presentation of the one acre family homestead without a milk cow, and the 5 acre homestead with a milk cow. NB: I would have changed Seymour’s title to A Guide to being Self Supporting through God’s Providence. In Emery’s book I like how she starts out with a very basic question: “How do you make a rabbit stew?” “Well, FIRST you catch a rabbit.” “Well, how do you catch a rabbit?” Good stuff in both books!

Book Cover
The Self-Sufficient Life and How to Live It by John Seymour


  • $30.00 List price
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  • Publisher: DK Publishing, Inc.
  • Pub. Date: March 2003
  • ISBN-13: 9780789493323
  • Sales Rank: 17,247
  • 312pp
  • Edition Description: 1 AMER ED
  • Edition Number: 1


The Self-Sufficient Life and How to Live It is the only book that teaches all the skills needed to live independently in harmony with the land harnessing natural forms of energy, raising crops and keeping livestock, preserving foodstuffs, making beer and wine, basketry, carpentry, weaving, and much more. This new edition includes 150 new fullcolor illustrations and a special section in which John Seymour the father of the backtobasics movement explains the philosophy of self-sufficiency and its power to transform lives and create communities. More relevant than ever in our high-tech world, The Self-Sufficient Life and How to Live It is the ultimate practical guide for realists and dreamers alike.

Library Journal

When Seymour’s The Complete Book of Self-Sufficiency was first published in 1976, it became a handbook for those seeking a simple, self-supporting way of life. Now this out-of-print classic is available in a revised edition, which basically contains the same information, namely, lots of advice on growing food, raising animals, and preparing and preserving food. One chapter focuses on crafts; another discusses energy production for the homestead. The two editions have almost the same illustrations, but those in the newer edition are in full color and on glossy paper, making this volume much more attractive. In addition, an updated bibliography includes web sites, associations, and seed suppliers. It would be hard to find another similar book with so much information on small-scale farming in one place. This book, along with Seymour’s revised The Forgotten Arts and Crafts, will appeal to those seeking simpler and environmentally responsible ways of living: “This way of life suits me,” writes Seymour, “it has kept me fit and at least partly sane into my 89th year, and it has prevented me from doing too much harm to our poor planet.” Recommended for all libraries, even if they already own the earlier edition.-Ilse Heidmann, Washington State Lib., Olympia Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information.

Book Cover
Encyclopediaof Country Living, The Old Fashioned Recipe Book by Carla Emory


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Average Customer Rating: Customer Rating for this product is 5 out of 5 (1 ratings)

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  • Publisher: Sasquatch Books
  • Pub. Date: July 2008
  • ISBN-13: 9781570615535
  • Sales Rank: 16,899
  • 928pp
  • Edition Number: 10

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Customer Rating for this product is 5 out of 5 Absolutely Outstanding!
Jake W, A reviewer, 08/04/2008

For anyone who plans to ‘move back to the land’ or if your already there, this book is a must! It will teach you everything you need to know on country living as if you have your grandpa or grandma at your side, showing you how to do it. I loved it and I can’t wait to try EVERYTHING in this book

A Big Thank You, and One Great Event, upcoming!

We had our first LITM get together with like minded compatriots from other areas this weekend. We got some major new fence built, and ate some fresh “clean” food for supper from the garden. After supper, we sipped a little whiskey, talked about days to come, while sitting on the porch, cooled by the night breeze. Thanks compatriots, the pleasure was mine! Next time whiskey, clogging and fiddling on the porch! Can not wait.

We try to use only non-hybrid seeds here at LITM. We are seed savers, no Monsanto for us! The Southern Exposure Seed Exchange,  http://www.SouthernExposure.com is a great source for such seed. Their seeds and plants do well through out the Celtic Fringe. They have an up coming event, go if you can, (make time).  Have a good time, learn something, and be  Doers of the Truth.

come to the Heritage Harvest Festival
at Monticello
Saturday September 6, 2008, 10am – 4pm

The Registration Grid is Up!
Keep an eye out for an image of the schedule to help you register and plan your day
Please note: Three workshops require pre-payment with Monticello. These are listed on the “Workshops” page, so read carefully before registering!

LEARN how to grow heirloom varieties, save your own seeds, and control pests without chemicals.

TASTE dozens of varieties of tomatoes, apples, garlic, and other fruits and vegetables.

TOUR the Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants gardens and nursery at Monticello’s Tufton Farm.

ENTER the heritage produce growing contest.

LEARN FROM national experts and local natural/organic growers who will join non-profits promoting sustainable agriculture and heirloom seed-saving to educate and inform gardeners from around the region.

TAKE HOME seeds, plants, garlic, apples and other produce from local growers and the extensive collection of the Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants.

Heritage Harvest Festival
Seed Swap

From 8-10AM September 6, 2008 the Heritage Harvest Festival will start with an Old Timey Seed Swap at the Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants Tufton Farm location near Charlottesville, VA. CLICK HERE to find out more about our

Heritage Harvest Festival’s Fundraising Kick-Off!
5% Day at Whole Foods Charlottesville, May 14th

The 5% Day at Whole Foods in Charlottesville was a great success. Thanks to all of you who helped spread the word about the Festival, and thanks to all the shoppers who stopped by!

CLICK HERE to see photos from
the 2007 Heritage Harvest Festival!
Consider Coming for the Entire Weekend!

  • Friday: Treat yourself to Monticello’s Biennial Historic Plants Symposium at Jefferson Library (seperate preregistration required.) Contact pcornett@monticello.org
  • Saturday: Come to the Heritage Harvest Festival.
  • Sunday: Tour the house and grounds of Thomas Jefferson’s historic Monticello.PRESENTERS include:
  • Dr Jeanine Davis – Author of “Growing and Marketing Ginseng, Goldenseal & Other Woodland Medicinals”
  • Peter J. Hatch – Monticells Director of gardens and Grounds
  • Felder Rushing – Author of “Pass Along Plants” & “Tough Plants for Southern Gardens”
  • Criket Rakita – Saving Our Seeds
  • Tom Burford – “Professor Apple” – Author, historic apple orchardist, and nursery consultant
  • Dr Arthur O. Tucker – Delaware State University, Author of “The Big book of Herbs”
  • Craig Lehoullier – The North Carolina Tomato Man, founder of Tomatopalooza.And MORE to be announced, come back soon or join our newsletter to learn more!
    Sign Up for the Heritage Harvest Festival
    Newsletter and Garden Guide

    Sign up to get gardening tips, workshop announcements, news and information about the Heritage Harvest Festival! Subscribe | Unsubscribe

    For more information or to reserve workshop space,
    call 540-894-9480 (M-F 11am-5pm)
    or email festival@southernexposure.com


    Some limited participation workshops require pre-registration (first come, first serve) and may have a fee.

    Check the workshop listings for details and available Master Gardener credits.

    Directions to Monticello’s Tufton Farm

    From Washington, D.C. and Points North
    Take Interstate 66 West to U.S. 29 South at Gainesville. Follow U.S. 29 South into Charlottesville and look for the signs for the U.S. 250 West/U.S. 29 South Bypass. Follow this bypass to Interstate 64 East (direction Richmond). Take Interstate 64 East and get off at Exit 121A onto Va. Route 20 South (direction Scottsville). At the second stoplight, turn left onto Route 53 (Thomas Jefferson Parkway) Follow Route 53 East for about 2 miles. Take a left before Brix Market (also has “Simeon” painted on it) at a sharp right curve and proceed .6 mile on Milton Rd (Rt. 732) to Tufton entrance. Take a left and follow driveway to Center for Historic Plants headquarters in grey barn.

    From Richmond and Points East
    Take Interstate 64 West to Exit 121 at Charlottesville. At the end of the exit ramp turn left onto Va. Route 20 South. At the second stoplight, turn left onto Route 53 (Thomas Jefferson Parkway). Follow Route 53 East for about 2 miles. Take a left before Brix Market (also has “Simeon” painted on it) at a sharp right curve and proceed .6 mile on Milton Rd (Rt. 732) to Tufton entrance. Take a left and follow driveway to Center for Historic Plants headquarters in grey barn.

    From Lynchburg and Points South
    Take U.S. 29 North to Charlottesville. Take Interstate 64 East (direction Richmond) and get off at Exit 121A onto Va. Route 20 South (direction Scottsville). At the second stoplight, turn left onto Route 53 (Thomas Jefferson Parkway). Follow Route 53 East for about 2 miles. Take a left before Brix Market (also has “Simeon” painted on it) at a sharp right curve and proceed .6 mile on Milton Rd (Rt. 732) to Tufton entrance. Take a left and follow driveway to Center for Historic Plants headquarters in grey barn.

    From Staunton and Points West
    Take Interstate 64 East to Charlottesville and get off at Exit 121A onto Va. Route 20 South (direction Scottsville). At the second stoplight, turn left onto Route 53 (Thomas Jefferson Parkway). Follow Route 53 East for about 2 miles. Take a left before Brix Market (also has “Simeon” painted on it) at a sharp right curve and proceed .6 mile on Milton Rd (Rt. 732) to Tufton entrance. Take a left and follow driveway to Center for Historic Plants headquarters in grey barn

  • Pointing out the ongoing Genocide of Our (White) people is now called hate!

    Of course our last President was Jefferson Davis. Both McCainiac and 100% negro Obamanation hate White people and I do not care about the Forced Union’s geographical entireity. Miami, El Paso, Los Angeles et al are Black Holes. I do not want anything to do with them, somebody else can “save” them if they wish. I do care about PSS and our people here at LITM, and those yet to come. I think David Duke is correct, in that 100% negro Obamanation is a Visual Aide to our accelerating destruction. Duke is also correct, we are heading for destruction as a people, unless God intercedes for us.   Deo Vindice!  Read on and enjoy the “hate”.

    Racist Groups Eye Boost If Obama Eleected

    David Duke: ‘We Have Lost Control Of Our Country’

    POSTED: 9:12 am EDT August 8, 2008

    They’re not exactly rooting for him, but prominent white supremacists anticipate a boost to their cause if Barack Obama becomes the first black president.

    Compare Candidates

    Former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke, of Louisiana, said Democrat Obama would be a “visual aid” to the idea that whites have lost control of America. Duke, once a Democrat who became a Republican in 1988 and served in the Louisiana House of Representatives, posted an essay on his Web site in June titled, “Obama Wins Demo Nomination: A Black Flag for White America.”Obama “will be a clear signal for millions of our people,” Duke wrote. “Obama is a visual aid for White Americans who just don’t get it yet that we have lost control of our country, and unless we get it back we are heading for complete annihilation as a people.Richard Barrett, a 65-year-old lawyer who traveled the country for 40 years advocating what he perceives as the white side in racial issues, is convinced Obama will defeat Republican John McCain in November.One of the leaders in the Nationalist Movement, Barrett told The Associated Press in an interview at his rural Mississippi home that, “Instead of this so-called civil rights bill, for example, that says you have to give preferences to minorities, I think the American people are going — once they see the ‘Obamanation’ — they’re going to demand a tweaking of that and say, ‘You have to put the majority into office,'” Barrett said. While most Americans have little or no direct contact with white supremacists, organizations such as the Anti-Defamation League and the Southern Poverty Law Center keep close tabs; the law center estimates some 200,000 people nationwide are active in such groups. Explore More:

    Find out more about Hate and Extremist Groups, Racial Issues, Racism and Bigotry and Social Issues, or try these articles:

    LITM is under Invasion!

    This will be the final head shot for our people, if the Living God does not intercede for us.  Our demographic Dachau is unfolding.   It is not Just Chattanooga, TN, the Forced Invasion, is happening through out LITM.  All things have failed, playing on General George Washington’ quote.    We need  Compatriots for our rally at Helm’s Deep.

    …But If Not…  Daniel 3:17  Christus Victor!

    Chattanooga: Population grows at rapid rate across region

    The latest demographic estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau show the Hispanic population in the tri-state region is growing almost 12 times faster than other groups.

    According to 2007 population estimates released this morning, the Hispanic population of Hamilton County and the surrounding 20 counties has grown almost 60 percent since 2000, compared to 5 percent growth in non-Hispanic groups.

    Gordon and Murray counties in Georgia lead the region, with Hispanic populations surging 131 percent in Murray and 116 percent in Gordon, census figures show. The Hispanic population has grown 86 percent in DeKalb County, Ala., and 80 percent in Georgia’s Catoosa County.

    Hamilton County saw its Hispanic population grown 73 percent, figures show, while Bradley County’s grew 72 percent.

    The issues of new populations represent “a change that other parts of the country have already experienced and dealt with,” said Mirtha Jones, coordinator of Hispanic outreach and director of Plaza Comunitaria, a partnership between Chattanooga State Technical Community College and the Mexican Consulate in Atlanta that works to educate Hispanic adults.

    The census data is based on birth and death certificates as well as surveys and does not make a distinction between legal and illegal immigrants.

    Ms. Jones said 85 to 90 percent of the Hispanic students she sees are Mexicans or Guatemalans who have come to the region for jobs in agriculture, construction or with poultry processing plants. Ms. Jones said she also knows of students who are from Uruguay, Colombia, Peru, El Salvador, Honduras and Cuba.

    Mexicans and Guatemalans make up the bulk of Hispanic immigrants in the Southeast, with sizable populations of other Central American nations and a relatively small number of South Americans, said Dr. Douglas C. Bachtel, a demographer with the University of Georgia. The immigrants leave their homelands in search of higher wages and more job opportunities, he said.

    In addition to the jobs Ms. Jones mentioned, Dr. Bachtel said many immigrants find work in the retail industry as maids or waiters. Dalton, Ga., in particular, has many Hispanic immigrants who work at carpet mills, he said.

    “If you don’t have those jobs, you aren’t necessarily going to get Hispanics,” Dr. Bachtel said.

    Those jobs are what concern Michael W. Cutler, a former Immigration and Naturalization Service agent and fellow with the Center for Immigration Studies based in Washington, D.C., which explores the effect of immigration on the United States.

    Mr. Cutler said immigrants who come into the United States illegally can work for low wages, driving down labor rates for citizens and legal immigrants.

    “The difference between an immigrant and an illegal is the difference between a house guest and a burglar,” he said.

    “We just need to make a distinction between those who come to this country to contribute and to share the American Dream and those who come to destroy it and create an American nightmare,” he said later.

    It is impossible to know how many illegal immigrants there are in the United States, Dr. Bachtel said, but he normally takes the census data and multiplies it by 1.5.

    Ms. Jones said she had heard some estimates as high as 15,000 Hispanics in the Chattanooga metro area — about 50 percent more than the Census Bureau’s estimate of nearly 9,600.

    School enrollment figures often give a better idea about an area’s population and in Hamilton County shows significant Hispanic growth, as well, Dr. Bachtel said.

    In the 2006-2007 school year, 1,757 Hispanic students were enrolled in Hamilton County, making up 4.1 percent of the total student body, school figures show. School administrators estimate the number grew to about 5 percent during the 2007-2008 school year.

    Those numbers indicate a sharp growth from the 1999-2000 school year when there were 429 Hispanic students — 1 percent of the total — enrolled in county schools, and even larger growth compared to 1995-1996 statistics, when Hispanics made up 0.6 percent of the system’s students.

    Similarly, Erlanger Health System has seen an increasing number of Hispanic patients, officials said. The hospital system admitted 4,168 Hispanic patients between October 2001 and September 2002, compared to 7,302 in the same period of 2006 and 2007, according to Erlanger spokeswoman Pat Charles.

    Responding to that trend, Erlanger has introduced bilingual patient guides, patient’s rights forms and elevator signs, as well as adding interpreters to the staff, she said.

    Other organizations and institutions are addressing the Hispanic growth as well, according to Ms. Jones.

    “Nearly everywhere you go the signs are bilingual,” she said. “It’s more visible than it was five years ago.”

    Dr. Bachtel said churches, public safety departments and businesses eventually must take notice of growing Hispanic populations. Law enforcement agencies across the South are recruiting Spanish-speaking officers, and many churches offer Spanish services or ministries, he said.

    “It’s pretty hard to take a confessional from someone if you don’t speak their language,” the professor said.

    Once an area’s Hispanic population becomes a noticeable percentage of the total, Dr. Bachtel said, businesses that cater specifically to immigrants will open, including restaurants and “mercados,” or markets.

    “Foods are one of the first things you miss in a foreign country,” he said. “Entrepreneurs pick up on that.”